Stepan Degtyarev, Minin and Pozharsky, or The Liberation of Moscow.                                                                                          © 2012, Daan Admiraal         

Stepan Anikiyevich Degtyarev (1766-1813) was a renowned Russian serf 1 composer of the late 18th century and the first decade of the 19th century. His whole professional career, except his last 4 years, he worked as serf for Count Nikolai Sheremetev (1751–1809) 2. He was recruited into the Count´s troupe at the age of seven and worked until the death of Nikolai in 1809 for his court. Many serfs received a professional musical education that was paid by their patron. They gave many concerts in the 18th and 19th century on their estates that got a high esteem. Degtyarev was educated at Moscow University (music and theatre) and was a student of the Italian composer Giuseppe Sarti (1729-1802) in St.Petersburg 3.

The majority of Degtyarev's compositions are vocal a capella works. He has a certain fame for that type of Russian choral music. Dmitry Stepanovich Bortniansky (1751-1825), Artem Vedel (1770-1808) and Maxym Berezovsky (ca. 1745-1777) sometimes are considered The Golden Three of his period. Degtyarev's switch to oratorio was a late one, forced by changing aristocratic wealth and artistic taste of the public.
Until a couple of years ago information about his patriotic oratorio Minin and Pozharsky - or the Liberation of Moscow (1811) could only be found in highly specialist books 4. That situation changed with the publication of a modern edition of the score (2006) and the release of a CD-recording (2007). We are very grateful to the Russian conductor of that recording, Sergei Skripka, for his help for purchasing the score.
                                                                                                 
                                                       Stepan Anikiyevich Degtyarev (1766-1813).
Discography.
As far as I know there is only one recording. The release date of the CD-set is 2007, but it is a re-release of a much older Melodiya recording (1990).
Minin and Pozharsky - or the Liberation of Moscow, Conductor Sergei Skripka, The Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra, Melodiya 1990 (2CD)
 
The libretto - synopsis.
The libretto concerns the 1612 liberation of Moscow from Polish occupation during the Time of Troubles interregnum by the Second Zemschina Army led by Kuzma Minin-Sukhoruk, a fishmonger, and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The CD booklet scarcely gives information about the libretto. Also the score has no English information about the story of the oratorio. I hope once to complete this page with the complete Russian text and a translation. I could find sparse information on internet about the writer of the libretto, Nikolai Ivanovich Gorchakov (1725-1811).
 
Historic background of the Liberation of Moscow in 1612.
The Time of Troubles 5 (1598-1613) is the time after the death of Fyodor I 6, the last Russian tsar of the Rurik Dynasty (1157-1598). Boris Godunov (c.1551-1605) who during the reign of  Fyodor I had been de facto regent of Russia from c.1585 to 1598 became the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. His short reign was not as successful as his administration under the weak Fyodor I. After the death of Boris Godunov Russia suffered a period of dynastic crisis and overall internal chaos. The throne was vacant; the great nobles (boyars) quarrelled among themselves; the Orthodox Patriarch Hermogenes was imprisoned; Catholic Poles occupied the Moscow Kremlin and Smolensk; the Protestant Swedes occupied Novgorod; continuing Tatar raids left the south borderlands of Russia completely depopulated and devastated; and enormous bands of brigands swarmed everywhere. During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618), in Russia called the Polish invasion or Polish intervention Moscow fell into Polish hands.  The nation rose together under the leadership of Kuzma Minin, a Nizhny Novgorod merchant, and Prince Pozharsky. They gathered an all-Russian volunteer army and expelled the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Moscow, thus putting an end to the Time of Troubles in 1612. In the battle for Moscow they liberated the city. On November 1 (New Style) 1612 the invaders retreated to the Kremlin and some weeks later the nearby Polish army was forced to retreat. The garrison in the Kremlin surrendered to the triumphant Pozharsky. In 1613 Mikhail I (1596-1645) was elected the first Russian Tsar of what became the house of Romanov (1613-1917).
 
                                      
                                       Ernest Lissner (1874-1941). The Poles surrender the Moscow Kremlin to Prince Pozharsky in 1612.
The Minin and Pozharsky theme in the years before the composition.
In the first decade of the 19th century Degtyarev was not the artist who used the theme of Minin and Pozharsky. Marina Ritzarev 7 gives many examples from literature: poems and a tragedy, but she also mentions a musical forerunner, the heroic spectacle in four acts with choruses and recitatives Pozharsky or the Liberation of Moscow (1806). So there was a great historic consciousness of the topic. It is no coincidence that the famous sculpture of Minin and Pozharsky in Moscow dates from exactly this same period. The monument was the result of a competition organised by the Free Society of Lovers of Literature, Science, and the Arts to commemorate in 1812 the 200th anniversary of the events in 1612.
 
                                                                               
                                                                                    The sculptor Ivan Petrovich Martos (1754-1835).
 
The competition 8 was won in 1808 by the celebrated sculptor Ivan Petrovich Martos 8 (1754-1835).
 
                                                      
 
The 'allusion' that became reality with the French invasion of Russia of 1812.
Of course Degtyarev could not foresee the upcoming French invasion of Russia of 1812 (the Patriotic War) when he composed Minin and Pozharsky in 1811.
But after 1810 Napoleons French Empire was near its peak extent in Europe and the Franco-Russian relations became progressively worse. Russia had good reasons to fear Napoleon: his army came closer and closer to the Russian border. With some right Marina Ritzarev calls the oratorio 'an allusion to the threat of Napoleonic invasion'.
                                              
                                                                   The boasted crossing of the Niemen, at the opening of the campaign in 1812, by Napoleon Bonaparte.
 
Exactly 200 years after the liberation of Moscow in 1612 in 1812 Moscow was liberated again from a foreign invader: Napoleon. In 1880 Tchaikovsky composed his 1812 Overture 9 to commemorate the Russian victory over the French Napoleonic army in 1812. And he used cannon fire in a Russian tradition that goes back to Sarti and Degtyarev.
The score.
The modern edition of the score is published by The Glinka State Central Museum of Musical Culture in Moscow (2006) 10.
Dedication: To the 95th anniversary of Museum and the 240 anniversary of Stepan Degtyaryov. Editor: Olga Zacharova.
A vocal score is also available. As far as I know there is no orchestral set of parts for rent or for sale. The clarifying text in this score is only in Russian which is a great pity for non-Russians. I hope when I find time to complete this page with that Russian texts and a translation.
 
The vocal soloists.
Minin - tenor (Min)
Pozharsky - tenor (Poz)
Abraham Palitsyn - bas (Pal)
Olga - soprano (Olg)
Trubetskoy - tenor (Tru)
 
Some remarks about the scoring.
Woodwinds.
The over all scoring is: 3332-2200 timp 4 perc str but the majority of the movements does not exceed double woodwinds 2222.
The overtures to the first (Nr.1) and the third act (Nr.18) are the only movements that need a third flute player who plays the piccolo.
The Corno inglese only plays in Nr.14 and Nr.24 and has an important solo part. Nr.14 is the only movement that requires 3 oboe players.
There is only one movement that exceeds the 2 clarinet scoring. Nr. 8 is scored for a wind ensemble of 5 players: 3 Corno di bassetto (F) en 2 horns. Two clarinets and a bass clarinet or bassoon could make a sufficient alternative.
Percussion.
In the percussion group 1 timpani player is the standard. Degtyarev  prescribes a second timpani player in the Nrs. 1 and 3. In fact the 2 timpani parts can easily be played by 1 player on 3 timpani.
The Alla turca 11 atmosphere of a military windband is created in Nr.18, a movement in 2 sections. The scoring of section-1 for windband and percussion is (except the amount of flutes) the same as for instance Beetthovens Zapfenstreich (ca.1806) from the same period:
Degtyarev, Minin and Pozharsky (1811) 3222-2200 (3=piccolo&2 flutes)1.Triangolo, 2.Tamburo (=Tamburo militare), 3.Piatti, 4.Gran Cassa.
Beetthoven, Zapfenstreich (ca.1806)      1222-2200 (1=piccolo)              1. Triangolo, 2.Tamburo militare, 3. Cinelli (=Piatti), 4. Tamburo grande (=Gran cassa).
The introduction for the Atto terzo has a real part for Canone. Sarti already used a canon in his Te Deum 12, the guns placed at the court of the castle, and discharged with great precision, in the appointed passages of the music. So surely Tchaikovsky was not the first to use canons in his Overture 1812.
The Russian horn band.
A special curiosity in Minin and Pozharsky that is typical for the period is the use of a Russian horn band 13, indicated in the score as Tube (роговой оркестр =  horn orchestra). The Tube play in Nr.6, 16, 28, 31, 32.
 
                                                                 
                                                                                                     J.A. Maresch (1719-1794), inventor of the Russian horn band.
 
The Russian horn band was invented in 1751 by J.A. Maresch (1719-1794), a horn player of Bohemian birth. His original idea to make a brass orchestra entirely composed of hunting horns proved to be very succesful. The first public concert in 1753 near Moscow was a huge success.
The horns measured from 9 to 800cm and more. In the first period of the Russian hornband each player played one note 'what made rehearsal a tedious affair: every player represented, as it were, one key of an organ' (Stewart Carter) 14.  But the horn band also sounded like an organ. Outdoors the sound could be heard for miles. About 1774 more subdued wooden horns intended for indoor performance were constructed.
                                             
                                              Horn orchestra, Russia, early 19th century.
Horn bands played arrangements of standard concert repertory such as overtures, symphonies, fugues, Russian airs and dances, as well as original pieces. We have an interesting earwitness exactly from the period when the oratorio was written. Upon hearing the Russian Imperial Horn Band in 1803, the German composer Louis Spohr commented 15:
'The hornists executed an overture by Gluck with a rapidity and exactness which would have been difficult for stringed instruments; how much the more so, then, for hornists, each of whom blew only one tone! It is hardly to be believed that they performed the most rapid passages with the greatest precision, and I could not have conceived it possible had I not heard it with my own ears'.
 
  Horn orchestra, Russia, early 19th century.
Degtyarev was not the first composer to use a horn band in combination with a symphony orchestra. It was Sarti who introduced the horn band is his compositions Gospodi vozzvakl k Tebe (I cried unto thee, O Lord) and Pomilluy mya, Bozhe (Have mercy upon us, O Lord=Miserere), both performed in 1785 16.
Also the composer Evstigney Ipatovich Fomin (1761-1800) used an offstage horn band in his very popular melodrama Orfey i Evridika (1792) 17.
 
                                                                
                                                                               Evstigney Ipatovich Fomin (1761-1800)
 
In the Deka-BC Publishing House score, Moscow 2006, the Tube-part is written like an organ part without any indication how the notes could have been distributed among the hornband players:

Some complete sets of Russian horn band instruments survived 18. In 2006 in Saint-Petersburg The Horn Orchestra of Russia 19 was founded. The Orchestra consists of 20 musicians; they are students and graduates of Saint-Petersburg Conservatory, laureates of Russian and International Competitions, artists of symphony orchestras and musical theaters of St. Petersburg. Today the Orchestra possesses 74 instruments with the range of 4 octaves.

Some final remarks about the music.
Minin and Pozharsky is written in a style that at the surface often reminds us to Mozart's music. Especially many melodies are written in the Viennese classical style. But also when the global impression of the music is Mozart look­alike we must conclude when beter listening or reading the score that Mozart is by far Degtyarev´s superior in his motivic play, his harmonic variety, the mood­changes and the technics of musical development. The small master and the genius. That Degtyarev  wrote in Mozart­style is not strange when we realise that Degtyarev was a pupil of Sarti and Mozart and Sarti had the same Italian composition teacher, Giovanni Battista Martini (1706-1784), also known as Padre Martini 20. On his way from Italy to St. Petersburg in 1785 Sarti travelled to Vienna where he visited Mozart, who used Sarti´s music and ideas in some of his opera´s.

Min Poz Pal Olg Tru

Nr. Title Solo Time Instrumentation Details, comments
        Atto primo                          22'30
1
Вступление
Introduction
---------- 7:38
3222-2200 2timp 1tamburo str
3=piccolo+2 flutes. Timpani:  (I: D,A; II: E,A, 2 players). The 2 timpani parts can easily be played by 1 player on 3 timpani. 1 percussion: Tamburo
2 Recitativo Min, Pal 1:24 str  
3 Coro-Recitativo- Coro Min 3:28 2222-2200 2timp coro Timpani:  (I: D,A; II: E,A, 2 players). The timpani part can easily be played by 1 player on 3 timpani. Min only in Recitativo.
4 Recitativo e Aria Min 4:13 2200-2000 str  
5 Coro   0:52 2202-2200 timp str  
6 Duetto e Coro Min, Pal 3:34 2222-2000 timp str coro Tube  
7 Recitativo e Coro Min 1:20 2222-2200 timp str coro Min only in Recitativo.
        Atto secondo                      34'20
8 Вступление
Introduction
---------- 4:28 0030-2 no strings 3 Corno di bassetto (F)
9 Recitativo e Duettino Poz, Min 3:02 2000-0000 str  
10 Aria Pal 4:30 2020-2000 str  
11 Recitativo Olg,Poz 2:55 str  
12 Duetto Olg,Poz 4:30 0222-2000 str  
13 Recitativo Olg, Min 2:37 str  
14 Aria Olg 4:11 2300-2000 Corno inglese has a big and very high solo part, in combination with 2 oboes.
15 Recitativo Poz, Min 0:58 2000-2200 timp 1tamburo str An exception on the rule in this piece that the recitativo is scored for strings.
16 Trio e Coro. Min, Poz, Pal 4:10 2222-2000 timp str coro Tube  
17 Fuga ---------- 2:59 2202-2000 timp str coro  
       Atto terzo                            35'45
18
Вступление
Introduction
---------- 6:23
3222-2200 timp 4perc str
First part: Timp:C,G,D. Perc: 1.Triangolo, 2.Tamburo, 3.Piatti, 4.Gran Cassa.
2nd  part: Timp: C,G,Eflat, Bflat. Canone
19 Recitativo Min, Pal 1:45 1001-0000 str  
20 Coro ---------- 1:45 2222-2200 timp str coro Timp:D,A,E
21 Coro ---------- 2:47 2222-2000 str In the choral part soli and tutti.
22 Recitativo Poz   str  
23 Trio Poz, Min, Pal 0:55 2020-2000 str  
24 Recitativo Olg, Poz 2:25 0100-0000 str Corno inglese solo.
25 Aria Olg 3:23 1001-2000 str  
26 Coro ---------- 0:44 2222-2200 timp str coro  
27 Recitativo Tru, Pal 1:26 2202-2000 str  
28
Coro
e Recitativo
Min, Poz, Pal
1:06
1:24
2202-2200 timp str Tube
The recitativo is scored for strings.
29 Aria Poz 4:06 2200-2000 str There is a violin solo: Violino principale
30 Recitativo Min, Poz 1:28 str  
31 Coro ---------- 2:35 2222-2200 timp str coro Tube  
32 Coro ---------- 1:42 2222-2200 timp str coro Tube  
33 Fuga ---------- 1:51 2222-2200 timp str coro  
 Total performance time           95'00
Minin And Pozharsky (Liberation Of Moscow) (Oratorium In 3 Akten)
1. Introduction (1. Akt) (7:38)
2. Rezitativ: Citizens, Prepare Yourselves To Hear The Terrible News (1:24)
3. Chor: Misfortune, Calamity Overtake Us (3:28)
Беда, беда постигнет нас,
Ещё ли будем медлить мы,
Кичливый враг готов вступить,
Готов вступить в поля.
Что окружают град, в поля.
Что окружают град.
Пойдём Отечество спасать.
Мечи, знамёна есть у нас.
Вождём кого избрать?
 
Recitatief

Пожарского! Достойнее он всех,
герой и патриот делами знаменитый,
Недавно он разил противных средь Москвы.
Его вождём мы изберём

Koor
Ему вручим мы жребий свой, он будет предводитель наш.
Пойдём Отечество спасать,
Мечи, знамёна есть у нас.
Bjedá, bjedá pastígnjet nas,
Jesjó li bóedjem mjédlit' my,
Kitsjlívyj vrag gatóv vstoepít'
Gatóv vstoepit' v poljá.
Shto akroezjájoet grad, v poljá
Shto akroezjájoet grad.
Pajdjóm atjétsjestva spasat'
Metsjí, znamjóna jest' oe nas.
Vazjdjóm kavó izbrát'?

Recitatief

Pazjárskava! Dastójnjeje on vsjech,
gerój i patriót djelámi znamenítyj
Njedávnа on razíl pratívnych sred’ Mavskvyj.
Jevó vazjdjóm my izberjóm

Koor
Jemóe vroetsjím myj zjrébi svoj,
on bóedjet predvadítel’ nash
Pajdjóm atjétsjestva spasat'
Metsjí, znamjóna jest' oe nas.
Een ramp, een ramp treft ons,
Nog even zullen we aarzelen
Terwijl de hooghartige vijand klaar is om binnen te vallen
Klaar om binnen te vallen in de velden.
Die de stad omringen, in de velden.
Die de stad omringen.
Laten we het vaderland redden.
We hebben zwaarden en vaandels.
Wie kiezen we als leider?

Recitatief

Pozjarski! Hij is waardiger dan allen,
de held en patriot bekend om zijn daden,
Onlangs trof hij de tegenstanders rondom Moskou
Wij kiezen hem als leider

Koor
Wij kiezen zijn lot voor hem,
hij zal onze leider zijn
Laten we het vaderland redden,
We hebben zwaarden en vaandels.

4. Rezitativ: When A Single Cause Unites All Hearts (4:13)
5. Chor: We Russians Offer Ourselves Immediately (0:52)
6. Duett - Chor: Great And Omnipotent Creator (3:34)
7. Rezitativ: Let Us Go To Pozharsky (1:20)
Пойдём к Пожарскому и возвестим ему,
что мы идём спасать от хищников Москву,

Желанье всех граждан,
чтоб был начальник он.
Ему прилична слава,
чтоб был он предводитель наш.
 
Pajdjóm k Pazjárskamoe i vazvestím jemóe,
shto my idjóm spasát’ ot chísjnikav Maskvóe,

Zjelánje vsech grazjdán,
shtob byl natsjálnik on.
Jemóe prilítsjna sláva,
shtob byl on predvaditel' nash.
 
Laten we naar Pozjarski gaan en hem vertellen,
dat wij Moskou uit handen van de rovers zullen houden, (letterlijk: gaan redden van de roofdieren)
(En dat) het verlangen van alle burgers is,
dat hij onze leider zal zijn.
Aan hem valt de aanzienlijke eer ten deel,
onze leider te zijn.
(lett: Aan hem is de aanzienlijke eer, dat hij onze leider is.

8. Introduction (2. Akt) (4:28)
9. Rezitativ: What Do I See? (3:02)
10. Arie: Go Forth To Save Freedom (4:30)
11. Rezitativ: Sons Of Of Motherland, I Will Go With You (2:55)
12. Duett: Whenever I Part From You (4:30)
13. Rezitativ: Forgive, Forgive Me, My Dear Spouse (2:37)
14. Arie: Love Shows Itself Everywhere Around Us (4:11)
15. Rezitativ: Prepare Yourselves, Warriors (0:58)
16. Trio, Chor: Behold The Most High, Our Help (4:10)
17. Choral Fuge: To You, To You, We All Cry (2:59)
18. Introduction (3. Akt) (6:23)
19. Rezitativ: The Great Deed Is Accomplished (1:45)
20. Chor: Praise To Minin And Pozharsky (1:45)
21. Chor: Honor The Throne, The Law, The Truth (2:47)
21. Coro
Чти престол, законы, правду,
веру чистую храни.
Побеждай в морях, на суше
и полсветом обладай.
21. Coro
Shti pristól, zakóny, právdoe, vjéroe tsjístoejoe chraní.
Pabezjdáj v marjách, na sóeshe i palsvjétam abladáj.
21. Coro
Eer de troon, de wetten, het recht,
bewaar het pure geloof.
Laten we ter zee, te land zegevieren
en de halve wereld overheersen.
22. Rezitativ: Posterity Will Not Forget My Fellow Fighters (0:55)
23. Trio: After The Terror, The Storms Of War (3:37)
24. Rezitativ: My Husband, The Most High Has Saved You (2:25)
25. Arie: Is There Anything In The World More Dear (3:23)
26. Chor: Oh, Happy Pair (0:44)
26. Koor
Счастливая чета, вы слава наших дней, супруги нежные, благословяем вас.

Живите в радости, любовью утешайтесь.
Желания сии от искренних сердец.
26. Koor
Sjastlívaja tsjetá, vy sláva náshich dnjej, soepróegi njézjnyje, blagaslavjájem vas.

Zjivitje v rádаsti, ljoebóvjoe oeteshájtjes'.
Zjelánija sií ot ískrennich serdjéts.
26. Koor
Gelukkig paar, de glorie van onze dagen bent u,
jeugdig echtpaar, onze zegen heeft u.
(lett: wij zegenen jullie).
Leef in blijdschap, moge liefde u troost bieden.
Deze verlangens komen voort uit oprechte harten.

27. Rezitativ: Not Everything Is Brought To Conclusion (1:26)
28. Chor: Pozharsky Liberated Russia (1:06)
28. Rezitativ: Accept The Consensus, Honored Leader (1:24)
28. Koor
Пожарский свободил Россию,
да будет он царём;
Его Всевышний предприял,
чтоб нам свободу возвратить;
Велик он сердцем и душoю,
кого мы с ним сравним
да будет он царём!
28. Koor
Pazjárski svabódil Rassíjoe,
da boedjet on tsarjóm
Jevó Vsevyshni prjedprijál,
shtob nam svabódoe vazvratít'
Vjelík on sjérdtsem i doeshójoe,
kavó my s nim sravním?
da boedjet on tsarjóm
28. Koor
Pozjarski heeft Rusland bevrijd,
hij zal (onze) tsaar zijn;
God zond hem,
om bij ons de vrijheid terug te laten keren.
Groot is hij, in zijn hart en geest,
met wie moeten wij hem vergelijken?
Ja, hij zal (onze) tsaar zijn
29. Arie: I Am Not Tempted By Supreme Power (4:06)
30. Rezitativ: Great Man, An Example For All Centuries (1:28)
31. Chor: We Exclaim "Praise To God!" (2:35)
31. Koor
Воскликнем славу Богу!
Царём в России Михаил!
Греми повсюду весть счастлива,
в концы вселéнной достигай.
Живи вовеки, царь избранный,
и наше счастье устрояй.
Благословись в своих потóмках, чтоб слава дел их громких проникнула до самых звёзд!
 
31. Koor
Vasklíknjem slavoe Bogoe
Tsarjóm v Rossíi Michaíl!
Gremí pavsjóedoe vjest' shastlíva,
v kantsy vsjeljénaj dastigáj
Zjiví vavjéki, tsar' ízbranny,
i náshe shástje oestrójaj
Blagaslavís' v svaich patómkach, shtob sláva djel ich grómkich praníknoela do sámyx zvjozd!
 
31. Koor
Prijs de heer! (lett: laten we uitroepen heilige god)
Michail is de tsaar van Rusland
Zorg dat deze gelukkige boodschap overal bekend is,
de uiterste plaatsen van het universum bereikt
Leef voor eeuwig, uitverkoren tsaar,
en verschaf ons gelukzaligheid
Wees gezegend in uw nageslacht,
moge de roem van hun welluidende daden de sterren
bereiken!

32. Chor: To Yo, Most Holy Lord Of All Creatures (1:42)
32. Koor
Тебе, Владыко твари всей,
хвалебну песнь поём!
Тебя, Творец непостижимый,
прославим в род и род.
Пошли России счастье, мир,
храни вовек.
 
32. Koor
Tebjé, Vladyka tvári vsjej,
chvaljébnoe pjesn' pajóm
Tebjá, Tvarjéts nepastizjímyj, praslávim v rod i rod.
Pashli Rossii shastje, mir,
chrani, chraní vavjek.
 
32. Koor
Voor u, Heerser over alle schepsels,
zingen wij dit loflied
U, ondoorgrondelijke Schepper, zullen wij roemen van generatie op generatie
Geluk en vrede is teruggekeerd in Rusland,
bewaar het voor eeuwig.
(lett: Rusland is teruggegaan naar geluk en vrede)

33. Choral Fuge: Hear In The Height Of Heaven (1:51)
 
Footnotes.
1. A good wikipedia article about Serfdom_in_Russia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serfdom_in_Russia    back to text
2.  The Sheremetev-family at a sudden moment owned 200.000 serfs.
A good wikipedia article about Nikolai Petrovich Sheremetev:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Petrovich_Sheremetev
3. Sarti arrived in St. Petersburg in 1785, and at once took the direction of the opera, for which he composed many new pieces, besides some very striking sacred music, including a Te Deum for the victory of Ochakov, in which he introduced the firing of real cannons. He remained in Russia until 1801. back to text
4. THE ORIGIN OF "THE FIRST RUSSIAN PATRIOTIC ORATORIO": STEPAN ANIKIEVICH DEGTIAREV'S MININ I POZHARSKII (1811) Order No. DA8508597 Hughes, Carol Bailey, Ph.D. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1984. 544pp.
Eighteenth-Century Russian Music. Marina Ritzarev. Ashgate Publishing Group, 2006.  back to text
5. Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_of_Troubles  back to text
6. Fyodor I Ivanovich (1557-1598), son of Ivan IV (The Terrible), was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598).
Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rurik_Dynasty  back to text
7. Marina Ritzarev, p.271  back to text
8. Read more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Martos
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monument_to_Minin_and_Pozharsky
http://www.artfortune.com/ivan-petrovich-martos/artist-129548/
9. The Year 1812, Festival Overture in E flat major, Op. 49  back to text
10. Deka-BC Publishing House. ISBN 5-901951-23-9 (978-5-901951-23-1) http://kultura.mos.ru/service/books/516977.html    back to text
11. For further reading about the Turkish music I refer to a good Wikipedia article:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_music_%28style%29#Musical_characteristics.   back to text
12. I could not find any modern score editions of these Russian choral works by Sarti. There is much conflicting information in the reference books. I have the impression that there is much confusion about titles and dates of composition.
Te Deum =? Tebe Boga khvalim (1789) for the Victory of Ochakov (Siege of Ochakov) in which Sarti introduced the firing of real cannons. back to text
13. I was highly indebted when writing these information to this valuable internet source:
http://www.operas.com.ar/Music-Encyclopedia/38142/Horn-band-%5BRussian-horn-band%5D.htm 
Also readable: http://www.lipscomb.edu/windbandhistory/RhodesWindBand_04_Classical.htm#russian_bands
http://www.tuba.org.ru/int.php    back to text
14. Carter, Stewart, ed. Perspectives in Brass Scholarship: Proceedings of the International Historic Brass Symposium. Amherst, 1995. Bucina: The Historic Brass Society Series No. 2.  back to text
15. Louis Spohr, Autobiography, trans. anon. (London, 1878), I, 46.  back to text
16. Are there any modern editions?  back to text
17. More about Evstigney Ipatovich Fomin (1761-1800):
http://www.hoasm.org/VIIF/Fomin.html
http://imslp.org/wiki/Category:Fomin,_Yevstigney_Ipat%27yevich      back to text
18. The Sint Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music has three unique sets of of instruments for Russian horn bands: a total of 161 instruments.back to text
19. Website: http://www.horns.ru/musician.php?i=1
20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padre_Martini   back to text